Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) proteins are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells (Melchior F. et al., 2003), and implicatedly regulate various cellular processes, e.g. stress responsing (Huang TT et al., 2003), cell-cycle progression (Muller S et al., 2001; Pinsky BA et al., 2002; Seeler JS et al., 2003), and gene expression (Muller S et al., 2004), etc.

    SUMO proteins belong to the superfamily of Ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) (Schwartz DC et al., 2003), which consisted of three components in mammalians: SUMO-1, SUMO-2 and SUMO-3 (Saitoh H et al., 2000). Recently, another component SUMO-4 was discovered (Bohren KM et al., 2004) in human. SUMO proteins are highly conserved from yeast to human. Only one SUMO protein -- Smt3 is in Baker's yeast.

    There are only 12 verified SUMO substrates before 2000 (Melchior F, 2000). But now, > 60 SUMO substrates were discovered (Seeler JS et al., 2003) and it becomes a fascinating hot area to search for new SUMO substrates.

    Conventional experimental approaches can identify SUMO substrates, but they are tedious and time-consuming. Small-scale analysis of SUMO substrates could improve the efficiency by the method of affinity chromatography-coupled high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (Zhao Y et al., 2004), yet only 4 previously characterized and 18 novel potential SUMO substrates were found.

    The majority of the SUMO substrates have a consensus motif with four amino acids: -K-X-E. And a nuclear localization signal (NLS) suffices to produce a SUMO conjugate in vivo (Manuel S et al., 2001), with only a few exceptions.

    With these molecular characteristics, it's possible to predict the SUMO substrates in silico. Here we combined the pattern recognition and comparative-sequence approach to predict the SUMO substrates.

If you use our SSP v1.0 or data for your research, please cite the following article:

Fengfeng Zhou, Yu Xue, Hualei Lu, Guoliang Chen, Xuebiao Yao. A genome-wide analysis of sumoylation-related biological processes and functions in human nucleus. FEBS Lett. 2005 Jun 20;579(16):3369-75. Supplementary materials.

A total dataset of 2,683 potential SUMO substrates in human and mouse identified is freely assessable in txt or pdf format.

Last update: Jun. 19th, 2005
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